With the increasing ubiquity of smartphones, survey practice has quietly been revolutionized. Instead of conducting a phone interview or mailing a questionnaire on paper, more and more surveys are now conducted on the internet with smartphones. Online surveys on smartphones have indisputable advantages, such as convenience to respond, greater coverage, and lower cost. On the other hand, it brought challenges to designing a mobile survey user interface (UI) that facilitates accurate responses and provides a satisfactory user experience. To address this issue, we took a systematic and human-centered approach to developing evidence-based guidelines for mobile survey user interface design. In this session, we will start with an overview of our approach to developing evidence-based mobile survey UI guidelines, followed by four studies exemplifying our practices in gathering existing evidence as well as generating new evidence to support guidelines.